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Uprising of Khordad 15

 

 

During the interval between the disaster of Feiziye school and Moharram month (on Farvardin 2 to Khordad 4, 1342), Imam Khomeini's fighting was often in the form of issuance of various declarations. Moharram caused the situation to turn into an extensive confrontation. The period of Moharram was the best time in order to disclose the crimes of regime and anti-Islamic plans of Shah.

  During a meeting with the authorities and scholars of Qom, Imam Khomeini suggested that each of them should deliver a speech for the people and mourners of Imam Hossein  and unveil the cruelties and offences of regime in Ashoora(10th day of Moharram). Also, despite the threat of regime Imam went to Feiziye in order to give a speech at 4 o`clock in the afternoon of Ashoora in1342 coincided with the 13th of Khordad in that year.

  Furthermore, after mentioning the tragic events of Karbela, Imam Khomeini compared the assault of Shah to Feiziye to the incident of Karbela and considered that disaster as the result of the intrigue of Israel and also assumed the regime of Shah as the puppet of Israel. In addition, Imam Khomeini mentioned that CIA warned the preachers not to dispraise Shah and Israel and say that the religion of Islam is in danger. Also, he stated that all of our problems and disputes are related to these three matters ... If we don't say the religion of Islam is in danger, isn't it exposed to danger? If we don't say Shah is such and such, Isn't it true? If we don't say Israel is dangerous for Islam and Muslims, isn't it dangerous? And basically, what is the relationship and conformity between Shah and Israel that CIA says: don't speak about Shah and Israel? Is Shah an Israelian in the viewpoint of CIA?

 

Uprising of Khordad, 15:

Following the news dissemination concerning the arrest of Imam in the sunrise of 15th of Khordad in 1342 and on the occasion of historical speaking of Imam against Israel and regime of Shah, the extensive demonstrations were held in the early times of Khordad 15 in Qom, Tehran, Varamin, Mashhad and Shiraz that were full of the mottoes against Shah and in support of Imam Khomeini.

  The military officers settled in the central and crucial places of Qom and Tehran, opened fire to the demonstrators. Furthermore, people defended themselves with wood and stone. The demonstration continued in that day till next two days and thousand of people were killed and injured. The most calamitous incident was the general massacre of people of Varamin who had put on the winding-sheet and moved toward Tehran in order to support Imam Khomeini. The military offices confronted them on Bagherabad Bridge and massacred them with heavy weapons.

  After suppressing the uprising, the prime Minister, Asadollah A'alam during an interview with the newspaper of Herald Teriboon on Khordad 17th in 1342 threatened that Imam Khomeini and other scholars will be tried in a court-martial and it is possible that their verdict of execution be issued. Two days later, during a speech, Shah considered the statements of Imam and demonstrations of people due to the agitation and money of the alien such as Jamal Abdolnaser, because Abadolnaser had a hostile relationship with Shah due to the cooperation of Shah and Israel on that time. In this direction, the regime media claimed that a person by the name of Abdolqeise had entered to Mehrabad airport from Beirut and one million Tomans had been gained from him in the customs of Mehrabad airport. Also, he confessed that Abdalnaser sent this money for special people in Iran. This claim was criticized by many people and journals in the inside and outside of the country such as many foreign journals and regime didn't present any reason and document in this regard. Some days after the arrest of Imam Khomeini, more than ten authorities and scholars of Iran immigrated to Tehran as the objection to the arrest of Imam Khomeini and declaration of their support of him. Due to the protest of the scholars and pressure of public opinion, Imam Khomeini was transferred to a house in north of Tehran and being watched after two months that he was under arrest in a military barracks. From the early hours of the next day, the merchants of Tehran and provinces installed flags on the threshold of their shops and decorated them with lights and gave people cookies and sweets.

  One day after the transition of Imam Khomeini (Mordad 12), the wide-circulated newspapers of the country published something with the order of CIA, so that they pretend that the transition of Imam Khomeini to the new place was due to the compromise made between him and the security officials. This news was just a rumor and Imam Khomeini denied it strongly during a speech after the complete freedom and return to Qom in the first opportunity.

  Shah who imagined that the suppression of uprising of Khordad 15 , arrest of Imam, relenting of the scholars and the most important matter which is the rumor of compromise caused Imam Khomeini to be isolated; he moved gradually in order to show circumstances usual. So, Asadollah A'lam was dismissed by him on Esfand 17, 1342 and pretended that he had been the cause of the recent incidents and his disposal had been due to the compromise with Imam Khomeini.

   "If Khomeini is hung, he will not do compromise. I am not such kind of mullahs who sit here and tell beads. I am not Pope who does ceremonies only on Sundays and the other times behaves as a sultan and does not care to other affairs. The base of Islamic independence is here and we should save this state from these problems."

  After Aalam, Hasanali Mansour, became the prime minister. During a speech, he praised Islam and considered it as "one of the most advanced and prominent religions of world "and also emphasized on the special kindnesses and favor of Shah concerning the clergy officials.

  Two days after the speech of Mansour , Imam entered to Qom at night on Farvardin 18  in 1343 without previous notice and welcomed by the scholars and people gradually. On that day, Etela'at newspaper wrote in an essay under the title "the white revolution of Shah and America " that fortunately, the society of clergy collaborates with all people in the accomplishment of the plans of revolution of Shah and people. Imam Khomeini denied strongly the subjects and matters of Etela'at newspaper during some words in order to react toward this accusation on Farvardin 21.

The effects of uprising of Khordad 15:

Generally, the uprising of Khordad 15 left behind some basic effects, such as:

1)   This uprising transferred the leadership of opponent movement of regime to the religious people and put the leftists on the margin.

2)   Killing of people in the uprising of Khordad 15, disclosed the hireling face of Shah that until that time he put the blame on the prime Ministers. After that, the revolutionists ignored the reformist ways and wanted the overthrow of the imperial system.

3)   Then, the rejection of all alien powers from Iran came into attention and finally, this uprising became the beginning point of the movement of return to ourselves in the country. Also, the Islamic associations were formed in the various places and the non-Islamic atmosphere was broken at universities and the other assemblies gradually.

Consequences of Uprising of Khordad 15, 1342:

The riot of regional and provincial associations, referendum of " White Revolution " , disaster of Feiziye school and reactions of Imam and clergy toward this incidents prepared the arena of the occurrence of a great incident, which ended up in an expansive change in the history of the fighting of Muslim people of Iran.

  On the threshold of Moharram, a suitable opportunity was gained in order to expand the extent of uprising and leading of people toward a great fighting. Knowing about this fact, regime started to threat and frighten the preachers and clergymen in order to neutralize such movement. Also, it wanted them to observe the following items besides preventing from simulating words:

1. They shouldn't speak against the first person of the country

2. They shouldn't speak against Israel.

3. They shouldn't use the clause of "Islam is in danger ".

  Theses threats were not effective finally and the clergymen familiarized people with the disloyalties of regime at most of the mourning ceremonies. Theses protests were reached their highest point in Ashoora day in Feiziye School especially during the speech of Imam Khomeini. Imam compared the Pahlavi government to Umayyads and Yazid dynasty in the afternoon of Ashoora (on Khordad 13th in 1342) during his fiery words. Furthermore, he criticized and even threatened Shah directly and warned him about having the same direction with Israel and Zionism.

  Although, according to available documents regime made itself  ready in order to fight against the demonstration of the ninth and tenth days of Moharram (on Khordad 12th and 13th in 1342) , but the demonstration of Tehran and Qom was such extensive that the officers showed more terrible reaction inevitably. According to the report of Police of Tehran, almost 124 people in the capital were arrested and many of them were martyred and injured in the demonstration of Khordad 14. The regime of Shah which had been in a difficult situation broke into the house of Imam Khomeini at midnight of Khordad 15th in 1342 in order to snuff the extensive wave of fighting. Then, they arrested and transferred him to Qasr barracks immediately and afterwards to Eshratabad barracks and jailed him here.

  Following the arrest of Imam Khomeini, the extensive protests and marches were occurred in the whole points of the country during which many Muslim people were martyred and injured. These protests reached its highest point especially in the day of Ashoora during the speech of Imam in Feiziye School.

  Imam compared the Pahlavi government to Umayyads and Yazid dynasty in the afternoon of Ashoora (on Khordad 13th in 1342) during his fiery words. Also, he criticized and even threatened Shah directly and warned him about having the same direction with Israel and Zionism. According to the police report, Tehran lived in fire and blood; people started to fight against the officers in various points of the capital. Also, the Ministry of War was commissioned to crack down the uprising besides announcing the martial law.

  The most violent incident was the massacre of Varamini people who had worn the winding-sheet and came to Teharn in order to support Imam. The military offices encountered them on Baqerabad Bridge and massacred them via heavy weapons.

  The propaganda machines of Shah which had encountered unexpected situation, tried to attribute the uprising of Khordad 15 to the alien agents.

  The regime of Shah claimed in such manner in its news media reported a person by the name of Abdolqeis had entered to Iran from Beirut with an airplane; almost one million Tomans has been gained from him in the customs of Mehrabad airport.

  Also, after the investigation he has confessed to bring the aforesaid amount of money on behalf of Jamal Abdolnaser for certain people in Iran. The claim of regime concerning the interference of Egypt in the generation of riot in Iran was criticized by many foreign journals. Regime didn't present any document in this regard and could never prove it.

The result and consequences of the uprising of Khordad 15:

We should seek the thought base of this uprising in the approach of Imam Khomeini in changing the imperial system and implementing the Islamic government. This approach which Imam defied with changing of constitutions concerning the matter of regional and provincial associations, put the referendum into question, and started disclosure against the prevailing system and accomplished this purpose 15 years later.

  The uprising of Khordad 15 and the related incidents left some effects which had influence on the continuance and final success of the movement seriously.

A part of these impressions is as follows:

1. New Turn of Clergy's Fighting: The harms happened to the clergy following the constitutional movement and also the suffocation and repression in the dictatorial period of Rezakhan caused the clergy to be dismissed from the political scene of the country.

  Then, despite the fighting of Ayatollah Kashani , the Fedayeens of Islam and the support of some jurists such as Ayatollah Khansari, seminaries were unfamiliar with the interference in the political matters.

  By the beginning of Imam's movement, the clergy became political and stepped into the political scene of the country extensively; also they continued fighting until the overthrow of the imperial system.

2. The religious opponent forces were put in the center: According to this uprising, the religious opposing forces of regime were put in the center and the nonreligious opponent ones such as the nationalistic political parties were driven to the verge of politics arena of the country.

3. The growth of awareness and revolutionary thought in people:

Under the care of speeches, messages and declarations of the scholars and preachers, the amount of awareness of people increased gradually.

4. The disclosure of the hireling face of Shah: Shah always tried to show himself as an innocent person who is the adherent of Islam and clergymen. Also, he wanted to show the government as the custodian of disorders and confusions via using some instruments such as changing the prime Minister. The bloody uprising of Khordad 15 made Shah end these hypocrisies and tricks and come to the scene with a naked face.

  After killing of people, all understood that the root of all corruptions and depravities is Shah and he should become the target of protest.

  When the great leader of Revolution heard the news of the police and military officer's attack on people and clergymen (in Feiziye School) he repeatedly said the regime stigmatized itself and presented its nature.

5. Establishment of the Islamic Organization and Groups:

Until before the occurrence of the uprising of Khordad 15, the Muslim forces did not have any organization and at least they were not benefited by the successful and functional machinery.

  After the uprising of Khordad 15, the necessity of the establishment and generation of the organizations were put into attention in the direction of guiding the fighting by the religious forces. The allied bodies were established by joining the various groups such as students, clergymen, and bazaar merchants and also with Imam's information and in relation with him. This group changed its direction concerning the educational and doctrinal activities, position of politics and armed fighting and changed into a military-political organization after the excitement of Imam Khomeini. The Islamic Nations Party declared its existence with the purpose of establishing the Islamic monotheistic government and called people to fight against the regime armed. In addition, after the uprising, the Islamic associations were formed in various centers and played a prominent role in the growth of public awareness. The creation of these organizations and also small and large groups is the indication of this matter that the necessity of organized fighting had rooted in people's thought.

6. Development of thought of regime overthrow instead of reformist thoughts.

 

Revival of Capitulations and Exile of Imam Khomeini

On Mehr 13, 1342 , A'alam government issued an enactment; based on that, it was assigned while submitting the "Vienna Agreement" to the parliament, a single article be attached to it so that the employees of consulting  bodies of America can be benefited by the advantages and immunities related to administrative employees and aforesaid technical members in this contract. This single article was the very capitulations. The reason of connecting capitulations to "Vienna Agreement" was that the dominant board was afraid of Iran nation's anger. They tried to delude people by benefiting of international aspect of Vienna Agreement. Hasanali Mansour , the prime Minister, brought the Vienna Agreement and its annexed act to the consultative Assembly which was passed by Senate Assembly in Mordad of 1343. Also, he tried verily to make the Assembly pass it.

  The history of Capitulation in Iran returns to the defeat of Iran from Russia and exaction of "Torkamanchaiy" contract.  After the revolution of Russia in 1917, the article related to the capitulation terminated in the friendship treaty between Iran and Russia (1921).

  Eleven days after the ratification of the exemption of American militaries from the inclusion of Iran of the magisterial regulations, Mansour government submitted the act of 200 million dollar loan from an American bank with the guarantee of America state and passed it. This loan was allocated to the purchasing of martial weapons from America

  The political circles of Iran considered the granting of this loan as the award of America to Iran due to the ratification of Capitulation act.

  Some days after the ratification of this act, Imam received one copy of Assembly's deliberations. Imam became angry toward the contents of the act and attacked Shah, America and Israel severely during his historical speech on Aban 4, 1343.

  The complete text of this speech and the declaration published by Imam after that, were propagated in the expansive mass and gave to people rapidly that this matter led to the reaction of people, groups and various classes of the societ

 

Saturday, July 11, 2009 - 15:58

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